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Archive for category: Studii de piata

Sondaje, cercetari de piata; articole cu tematica economica

2010
05 Sep 2010

…….Valorile angajatilor din Romania

Client : Universitatea Al. Ioan Cuza Iasi

 Date au fost culese de INFOmass. Analiza a fost realizata de Conf. dr. Livia Baciu
“Al.I.Cuza” Universitatea Iasi, Facultatea de Economie si Administrarea Afacerilor.

Metodologia cercetarii

Marimea esantionului eşantionului: 1003 persoane de peste 18 ani, apte de munca

Tipul esantionului: esantion probabilist, stratificat, bi-stadial

Criterii de stratificare: 8 arii culturale grupate pe provincii istorice,  mediul rezidential (urban-rural) si marimea localitatilor urbane (3 tipuri)

Esantionare: selectie probabilista a punctelor de esantionare pe baza listelor electorale

Numar de puncte de esantionare: 137 puncte de esantionare cuprinzand  strazi, comune si sate  din 88 de localitati.

Selectia gospodariilor: a fost realizata pe baza de pas statistic. Aplicarea chestionarului s-a realizat pe baza chestionarului de preselectie.

Reprezentativitate: esantionul este reprezentativ pentru populatia apta de munca din mediul urban si rural din Romania

Eroare: ± 3 % cu probabilitate de garantare a rezultatelor de 95%.

Validare: esantionul pe baza recensamantului general al populatiei

Interviurile s-au desfasurat la domiciliul subiectilor pe baza unui chestionar structurat

 

INSTITUTIONS AND VALUES OF ROMANIANS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL REGIONS

Introduction

Ever  since  1944  Lucian  Blaga  suggested  the  existence  of  a  direct  connection  between  the occupied  space  and  the  way  the  collective  mentality  is  structured;  the  steppe  generates  a collective mentality different from the one created by the hill-valley alternation. Each people is dependent  on the space it occupies, the space history, on its culture; however, the resulting differences should not be discussed in terms of quality (some are better than others) but in differential, specificity terms110. This is the case because, before being a Romanian or a Chinese, a person  has some deep socio-psychological characteristics, which are common to all human beings.

Recent international research focuses mainly on cultural factors which draw a line between economic  performance,  work  discipline,  economic  thinking,  or  the  respect  paid  to  some traditional institutions like property or contracts. Culture influences institutional development. At the same time, the integration of cultural elements within the frame of  the institutions of society is a mechanism which leads to their own persistance111. In this context, it is necessary to be aware of the fact that certain behavior rules have a very slow changing rhythm, finding their origin in immutable cultural factors, while others can change to the extent to which the economic game is more attractive as far as the economic results are concerned. The inherited behavior rules and beliefs  are  constituted  by  and,  at  the  same  time,  reflect  the  cognitive  models  shared  by individuals, thus representing common knowledge in terms of expected and, at the same time, socially accepted behavior. These can hardly be changed and the main  reason for this is the ideology of a social community.

There are two or three dominant cultural patterns as far as the European level is concerned: traditionalism,  modernism,  and  post-modernism.  Of  all  the  European  countries,  Romania  is among the closest to traditionalism112, having the tendency to consolidate its traditional values thanks to the population’s disappointment regarding political, economic and social changes after the  fall  of  the  Communist  regime.  The  Romanian  government  introduced  hesitant  policies, dominated by compromise which brought no feeling of  positive change. As a consequence, the Romanians’ reluctance, as far as the power of state and the newly-created institutions, generally perceived as corrupt and inefficient, maintained socialism-influenced beliefs or managed to push society towards traditionalism and constantly cultivated the tendency towards not accepting the the modernising of values. This is why the analysis of formal-informal institutions in the context of value change becomes much more relevant in Romania’s case.

Methodology

The data gathering method was the survey and the questionnaire was its instrument, applied at a national level, in April 2008, through the INFOMASS IAŞI company.

Of all the procedures used in surveys practice for   sample formation (aleatory, controlled and

mixed sample formation procedure), the mixed sample formation procedure was chosen and the stratified  sample formation method was applied. The strata were delimited according to some qualitative criteria (cultural areas, the residential medium) and quantitative criteria (the size of localities). The sample was  made up of sub-samples, created through selections at the stratum level.

The  following types  of  questions  were  used:  cloze  questions  (multiple  choice  and  dichotomic answers), open questions and partially open questions. Factologic and opinion-based questions were also included. The Likert scale was used to measure the intensity of opinions expressed during the survey.  This is a response scale on which the subject places his/her opinion between „agree” and

„disagree”.

The questionnaire is made up of three parts:

– one part  which contains instrumental values (types of action), using 15 out of the 18 original instrumental values of the Rokeach questionnaire, presented as bipolar statements on a Likert

scale, on which the respondents had to express their approval, disapproval or neutrality;

– one part made up of negative informal institutions supposed to be characteristic to Romanians

(task delay, lack of ambition, taking/giving bribes or „gifts”, neglect and laziness, envy, lack of punctuality, the „assisted” mentality, negative collective identity), all these being presented in the questionnaire in the form of positive statements with the purpose of checking the respondents’ honesty,  considering that they would not overtly admit the fact that they are envious, lazy or oriented towards neglect;

– and one part which comprises a set of demo-economic variables (the level of education, the field of  activity  the subject activates in, the number of family members, monthly income, personal

wealth etc.)

The data analysis was achieved by using a series of statistic methods and techniques: tables, graphs, percents, correspondence analysis, analysis of variance.

Results

As  far  as  the  first  set  of  questions  over  instrumental  values  within  the  Rokeach  value questionnaire is concerned the region analysis is synthesised in table no. 1 where the affirmative

answers are presented in percents.

Table no.1 The Regional instrumental values evaluation

Statement- value Moldova Buuresti Dobrogea Transilvania Muntenia
A 1 / Afectiveness 71 83 94 90 85
A 2 / Ambition 84 67 85,4 85 82,4
A 3 / Obedience 48 35 53,4 61 57
A 4 / Competence 84 69 99 95 87,5
A 5 / Courage 76 44 61 60 60
A 6 / Cleanliness 84 73 98 96,4 91
A 7 / Creativity 57 47 55 55,4 52
A 8 / Independence 78 68 85 80 76
A 9 / Tolerance 57 62,5 80 75 70
A 10 / Inteligence 62 53 61 65 60
A 11 / Politeness 86 78 97 97 88
A 12 / Receptivity 78 48 61 58 61
A 13 / Responsibility 92 75 77 85 85
A 14 / Sincerity 56 45 73 60 72
A 15 / Cheerfulness 45 35 65 44 49

Therefore as far as representative characteristics are concerned, with over 75% positive answers,

the following instrumental values are present in the historical regions:

1.  for  Moldova  –  ambition,  competence,  courage,  cleanliness,  independence,  politeness, receptivity, responsibility;

2. for Bucuresti – affectiveness, politeness, responsibility;

3. for Dobrogea – affectiveness, ambition, competence, cleanliness, independence, tolerance, politeness, responsibility;

4. for Transilvania – affectiveness, ambition, competence, cleanliness, independence, tolerance,

politeness, responsibility;

5. for Muntenia – affectiveness, ambition, competence, cleanliness, independence, politeness, responsibility.

We notice that, at the regional level, the most frequent values (present in at least 4 regions out of

5) are affectiveness, ambition, competence, cleanliness, politeness, responsibility. Values such as sincerity,  receptivity, creativity obtained poor results, which confirms the idea that individual

initiative still needs to be cultivated in the Romanians’ case, for whom the competition mentality

is  not  part  of  the  socially  accepted  values  yet.  The  correspondence  analysis  led  us  to  the following associations between the above-presented instrumental values and regions in table no.

2, where the ٧ sign indicates the presence of the characteristic.

Table no.2 The Association of instrumental values with the Regions

Statement- value Moldova Bucureşti Dobrogea Transilvania Muntenia
A 1 / Afectiveness ٧ ٧ ٧
A 2 / Ambition ٧ ٧ ٧
A 3 / Obedience ٧ ٧
A 4 / Competence ٧ ٧ ٧
A 5 / Courage ٧
A 6 / Cleanliness ٧ ٧
A 7 / Creativity ٧
A 8 / Independence ٧
A 9 / Tolerance ٧
A 10 / Inteligence ٧
A 11 / Politeness ٧ ٧ ٧
A 12 / Receptivity ٧
A 13 / Responsibility ٧ ٧ ٧ ٧
A 14 / Sincerity ٧
A 15 / Cheerfulness ٧ ٧

From the perspective of the two dimensions of the above-mentioned axiological orientations –

traditionalism and modernism or postmodernism, we notice that the region which gathers most of the  modernism characteristics (8, out of which 5, of the most representative, are exclusively found here)  is  Transilvania, which leads us to the conclusion that this region is the closest to modernism.

As far as the questions regarding negative informal institutions – considered to be representative for   Romanians  –  (slink  attitude,  task  delay,  lack  of  involvement,  neglect,  shallowness,

taking/giving  bribes,  laziness,  envy,  lack  of  punctuality,  the  „assisted”  mentality,  negative

collective  mentality)  are  concerned,  the  hierarchy  patterned  by  the  respondents  in  the  five historical  regions is synthetised in table no. 3, by gathering the total agreement and partial agreement percents.

Table no. 3 The regional evaluation of negative informal institutions (%)

Statement- institution Moldova Bucureşti Dobrogea Transilvania Muntenia
B 1 / Slink attitude 9 3 6 6 9
B 2 / Task delay 45 48 56 47 42
B 3 / Lack of involvement 11,4 5 11 6 8
B 4 / Shallowness 22 8 8 5 16
B 5 / Bribery 15,4 11 9 7 9,4
B 6 / Laziness 6 1 1 9 5,4
B 7 / Envy 36 44 40 36 31
B 8 / Lack of punctuality 20,4 7 21 10,4 18
B 9 / „Assisted” mentality 74 60 89,4 74 76
B 10 / Negative collective identity 57 48,4 72 67 63

Thus, a strong negative characteristic, with over 74% of the answers, is the „assisted” mentality

for Moldova, Dobrogea, Transilvania and Muntenia. As far as Bucharest is concerned, this characteristic is present in over 60% of the answers. The negative collective identity is present in

over 50 % of the positive answers in Moldova, Transilvania and Muntenia and in over 72% in

Dobrogea.The task delay characteristic is to be found at the limit between 40 and 50% in all the regions,  the greatest approval percentage being identified in Dobrogea with 56% percent. The well known Romanian envy is not statistically confirmed as a dominant characteristic, the result being between 31% and 44% in all regions.

The  simple  correspondence  analysis  led  us  to  the  following  negative  types  of  behavior

(institutions) associations:

– as far as the „assisted” mentality is concerned the association is made between the „total agreement”  and  Dobrogea  and  Moldova;  Muntenia  and  Transilvania  are  related  to  „partial

agreement”;

– as far as the negative collective identity is concerned, we notice an association between the

„total agreement” and Dobrogea; „I hardly agree” or „neither agreement nor disagreement” and

Bucharest; „total disapproval” or „partial approval” and Transilvania, Muntenia and Moldova;

– as far as the task delay characteristic is concerned, the association was confirmed by „total approval” in the case of Bucharest, while the inhabitants of Transilvania totally disapprove this.

The multiple correspondence analysis led us to the following associations between negative

behavior (institutions) and regions:

– for Moldova – the „assisted” mentality and envy;

– for Bucharest – envy;

– for Muntenia – the „assisted” mentality.

The  corelation  between  the  negative  informal  institutions and  the  respondents’  income

according to the region criterion registered a significant value for:

– for Bucharest– the lack of involvement, shallowness, and the „assisted” mentality;

– for  Dobrogea–  the  slink  attitude,  lack  of  involvement,  punctuality,  the  „assisted”

mentality         and negative collective identity;

– for Transilvania – lack of involvement.

Although it is a well-known fact that Moldova is the poorest among Romania’s regions, no

significant  corelation  between  negative  cultural  characteristics  and  the  respondents’non- performant status was identified.

Conclusions

The most frequent instrumental values (present in 4 regions out of 5) are affectiveness, ambition, competence,  cleanliness,  politeness,  responsibility.  Values  such  as   sincerity,   receptivity, creativity obtained  only  a  poor  percentage,  a  fact  which  confirms  the  idea  that  individual

initiative still needs to be cultivated in the Romanians’ case, for whom the competition mentality

is not part of the socially-accepted values yet. The simple correspondence method demonstrated that the region which gathers most of the modernity characteristics, (8 out of which 5, among the most representative, are to be found exclusively here) is Transilvania, thus being different from the rest of the regions.

Out of the negative informal institutions, considered to be representative for Romanians, the hierarchy  created by the respondents confirms the initial hypothesis of the dominance of the

„assisted” mentality and of the negative collective identity, which had a clear impact and with a poorer percent the task delay and envy. They demonstrate that even after 20 years of communism, the free and self-determined man’s mentality is not rooted, as far as the collective mentality isconcerned.  The  simple  correspondence  method  showed  an  association  between  the  ‚total approval”  response  and  Dobrogea  and  Moldova  for  the  „assisted”  mentality, and  between Dobrogea and the negative collective identity and task delay and Bucharest.

The results of the present research  confirm the fact  that if  motivation  exists,  behavior  can improve by internalising efficient formal institutions, and economic agents can thus appreciate

those values which enable the behavioral adjustement to the new institutional context, even though  this is a long-term learning process. The gradual increase of the population’s welfare doubled by corruption diminution at the level of national institutions are conditions which, added to the  population’s diffuse support , are imperatives for transition at the level of values and behavior.

Romanians lack  social trust and involvement , a fact which is demonstrated both by the present research and by studies performed by international studies: nevertheless, they increase capital and social welfare; this is why we consider that the alfa and omega for any institutional reform or of any  socio-political policy should be their support and development on a social level. Just like identity, trust is built by having as a point of departure the past –the sum of values and traditions, actions and motivating facts – all given value, widely-recognised and cultivated both at the group as well as at the community level.

We are convinced that the Romanians’ pessimistic obssesions regarding their own flaws canrighteously be abandoned. We have tried to demonstrate so far that the Romanians, as people, are neither superior nor inferior to others, and this is why we believe that only by trusting each othercan we have the life we desire.

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2010
04 Sep 2010

…….Agricultura in Europa


Agricultura in Europa

A regional picture of farming in Europe — what, where and how much?

  • articol in engleza
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2009
15 May 2009

…….Veniturile populatiei

 

Femeile au castigat mai putin decat barbatii in 2008

Femeile au castigat in medie cu 114 lei mai putin decat barbatii, realizand un castig salarial brut lunar de 1.700 lei (fata de 1.814 lei al barbatilor) si un castig salarial net lunar de 1.264 lei (fata de 1.348 lei al barbatilor), potrivit Institutului National de Statistica.

Femeile au castigat mai putin decat barbatii in 2008

Barbatilor le revin castiguri salariale medii lunare nete superioare femeilor in majoritatea activitatilor economice, cele mai mari diferente (peste 25%) regasindu-se in industria prelucratoare (28,3%) si in intermedieri financiare si asigurari (26,1%).

Numarul salariatilor a crescut cu 161.000 in 2008

Numarul mediu al salariatilor a fost in 2008 de cinci milioane persoane, in crestere cu 161.000 fata de anul precedent, angajatorii platind in medie, 2.296 lei pe luna, respectiv 13,32 lei/salariat pe ora, in crestere cu 25,2% fata de 2007, potrivit Institutului National de Statistica (INS).

Cei mai multi angajati au fost barbati

Potrivit statisticii, cei mai multi angajati au fost barbati, respectiv 2,72 milioane persoane, reprezentand 54% din numarul total al salariatilor inregistrati anul trecut, de 5,046 milioane. Fata de 2007, numarul barbatilor angajati a crescut cu 95.800 de persoane, peste avansul inregistrat de femeile angajate, respectiv 65.200 persoane.

Pe sectoare economice, repartizarea arata ca majoritatea se regaseau in sectorul tertiar, ponderea acestora reprezentand 57% in 2008. In sectorul secundar (industrie si constructii) lucrau 40,9% dintre salariati, iar in cel primar numai 2,1%.

Totodata, activitatile din constructii si industria extractiva sunt desfasurate cu preponderenta de barbati, acestia reprezentand 87,5% din numarul total de lucratori, respectiv 84,9% din totalul salariatilor. Activitatile caracterizate prin grad pronuntat de “feminizare” al fortei de munca salariate sunt cele de sanatate si asistenta sociala (79,6% din numarul total al salariatilor din ramura), invatamant (69,3%).

Cele mai mari castiguri, in domeniul financiar si asigurari

In ceea ce priveste veniturile, castigul salarial mediu net lunar la nivelul economiei nationale (1.309 lei) a urcat cu 25,6% (respctiv 267 lei), fata de anul precedent.

Cele mai mari castiguri s-au inregistrat in domeniul intermedieri financiare si asigurari, care au fost de 2,4 ori mai mari decat media pe economia nationala, dar si in administratia publica, unde veniturile au fost de aproape doua ori mai mari fata de medie.

La polul opus, sub media pe economie, s-au situat castigurile salariale medii nete din activitatile din hoteluri si restaurante, unde veniturile au fost cu 40,9% mai mici, activitati de servicii administrative si activitati de servicii suport, -36,2%, dar si in agricultura, silvicultura si pescuit, unde veniturile au fost cu 30,2% mai reduse.

In 2008, nivelul castigului salarial nominal net l-a depasit pe cel al anului 1990 de peste 4.000 ori. Indicele castigului salarial real (exprimat in raport cu evolutia preturilor de consum ale populatiei) a fost de 130,3% fata de anul 1990 si de 116,5% fata de anul 2007.

Bucurestenii au salariile cele mai mari

In profil teritorial, pe judete, castigul salarial mediu lunar net in anul 2008 s-a situat sub media pe economie in 36 dintre judete. Cel mai scazut nivel (987 lei) s-a inregistrat in judetul Covasna, cu 24,6% mai putin decat media pe economie.

La polul opus s-a situat castigul salarial mediu lunar net realizat in Bucuresti (1.838 lei), cu 40,4% peste media pe economie.

Castigul salarial mediu orar brut a fost in anul 2008 de 10,22 lei/ora, cu 26,3% mai mare decat in anul precedent. Valoarea neta a castigului salarial orar a inregistrat o crestere de 25,8% comparativ cu anul 2007, ajungand la 7,60 lei/ora.

Efectivul salariatilor la sfarsitul anului trecut a fost de 5,23 milioane persoane, in crestere cu 69.700 persoane fata de sfarsitul anului 2007.

Cei mai multi angajati, in industrie si constructii

Cei mai multi angajati se regasesc in industrie si constructii, in proportie de peste 40% in regiunile Vest, Centru, Sud – Muntenia, Sud -Vest Oltenia si Nord -Vest.

Cea mai mare pondere a salariatilor din servicii se regaseste in regiunea Bucuresti-Ilfov (72,7% fata de 58,3% pe total economie). In sectorul tertiar se concentreaza majoritatea salariatilor din regiunile Nord-Est, Sud-Est, Nord-Vest, Sud-Vest Oltenia, Centru si Sud-Muntenia.

sursa post: MediaFax www.mediafax.ro.
2007
31 Aug 2007

…….Radio – domenii de interes ascultatori

Extrase din studiul de audienta radio regional

Moldova,  urban peste 60000 loc., Universul: 1065000 persoane (15-75 ani)    Esantion: 1158 persoane, Eroare: +\- 2.9%

Sondajul a vizat obiceiurile de consum radio precum si audienta perincipalelor posturi de radio.

“Ce obisnuiti sa ascultati la Radio?”

 

 

 

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“Care  dintre urmatoarele domenii va intereseaza in mod special?” (cu referire la radio)

 

Da % Nu %
%
muzica 61.2% 38.8%
starea vremii, meteo 55.9% 44.1%
probleme sociale 41.4% 58.6%
probleme de politica interna 37.8% 62.2%
probleme de politica externa 24.5% 75.5%
evenimente sportive 30.4% 69.6%
turism (calatorii si vacante) 20.4% 79.6%
medicina, sanatate, alimentatie 47.2% 52.8%
stiinta si tehnica 19.0% 81.0%
computere, software, IT, Internet 19.6% 80.4%
minoritati, comunitati etnice 3.2% 96.8%
auto moto 14.9% 85.1%
economie, finante, banci, curs valutar, b 25.3% 74.7%
moda, cosmetica, frumusete, intretinere 28.4% 71.6%
viata mondena (viata vedetelor, barfe) 24.9% 75.1%
religie 23.4% 76.6%
familia, viata de cuplu 28.3% 71.7%
copiii si educatia lor 28.0% 72.0%
evenimente/ stiri locale si regionale 30.5% 69.5%
sfaturi/ idei pentru casa si gradina, mesterit / reparat 17.3% 82.7%
paranormal, astrologie 14.7% 85.3%
bucatarie, retete culinare 25.9% 74.1%
publicitate / reclame 6.8% 93.2%
natura, viata animalelor, mediul inconjurator 20.3% 79.7%
criminalitate, infractiuni 15.2% 84.8%
concursuri cu premii 11.6% 88.4%
evenimente culturale, teatru, cinema 20.4% 79.6%
sfaturi juridice, legi 23.5% 76.5%
2007
21 Mar 2007

…….Sondaj – Munca in strainatate


Perioada: 2006

Populatia vizata: populatia municipiului Iasi

Esantion sondaj de opinie : 967 gospodarii

Mod de esantionare: aleator

Eroare: 3,2% cu o probabilitate de 95%

Alte informatii: toate chestionarele au fost completate la domiciliul respondentilor

Mai mult de doua treimi dintre ieseni ar accepta sa plece sa lucreze in strainătate daca cineva le-ar oferi un loc de munca. Doar 17,3% dintre ieseni declara ca nu ar accepta să lucreze in strainatate acestia fiind în cea mai mare parte a lor pensionari.

Desi 70% dintre ieseni ar accepta sa plece sa lucreze in strainatate, procentul celor care au incercat in ultimele 12 luni sa gaseasca un loc de munca in strainatate este doar de 21%.

Studiul asupra ieşenilor care lucrează în străinatate a fost realizat de INFOmass pe ieşenii care au rude (de gradul 1 sau 2) plecate să lucreze în străinătate ; acestia au furnizat informaţiile care interesau despre cei plecaţi în străinătate. Italia se dovedeşte a fi de departe ţara preferată a ieşenilor, 47% dintre cei plecaţi să lucreze în străinătate fiind în Italia. Pe locul II se situează Spania cu un procent de 11%. Studiul a inclus şi ieşenii plecaţi ilegal la muncă în străinatate. USA, Franta, Canada, Germania se găsesc deasemenea printre opţiunile ieşenilor.

Cine sunt cei plecaţi să lucreze în străinătate? Studiul INFOmass a evidenţiat un număr relativ egal de bărbaţi şi femei aflate la muncă în străinătate. Diferenţe semnificative le găsim în funcţie de vârstă, unde cei cu vârsta între 21-30 ani constituie aproape jumătate dintre cei plecaţi în străinătate. Deşi tinerii reprezintă principala categorie , totuşi şi segmentul cu vârsta de peste 40 ani reprezintă o categorie semnificativă cu un procent de 22%. Având în vedere nivelul studiilor , sondajul INFOmass arată că 42% dintre cei plecaţi au studii superioare.

Cei plecaţi să lucreze în străinătate, prin ajutorul trimis in ţară , au o contribuţie majoră la dezvoltarea economică a Iaşului. Jumătate dintre ieşenii care au rude plecate să lucreze în străinătate au declarat că sunt ajutaţi financiar, ceea ce înseamnă că aproximativ 1 din 10 familii ieşene este ajutată financiar. Dacă ţinem cont de faptul că in Iaşi sunt aproximativ 105 000 de familii ajungem la impresionanta cifră de 10000 de familii ieşene ajutate financiar de rudele din strainatate.

Chiar dacă ajutorul finaciar pe care îl primesc lunar este , pentru cei mulţi sub 200 de euro, totuşi avand in vedere numarul mare de familii ajutate lunar ajungem la o suma ce depăşeşte cu mult 1 000 000 de euro, bani care intră în Iaşi într-o lună.

sondaj realizat de INFOmass